What is the meaning of a closed universe? quizlet

Astronomy Chapter 26 Flashcards Quizle

1/H. The stellar epoch, which we are still in today, began with: About three billion years after the Big Bang, with population I stars forming. Of the normal elements around us, the Big Bang produced: hydrogen and helium. The 2001 WMAP data leads us to a new universe that is: 27% matter and 73% dark energy what is the meaning of a closed universe quizlet? The universe will someday stop expanding and start to collapse. If the density of the universe is greater than the critical density this means that. the universe is expanding at a rate less than the escape speed of the universe. Considering this, what is meant by closed universe? This is called a closed universe. The geometry of the universe is often expressed in terms of the density parameter, which is defined as the ratio of the actual density of the universe to the critical density that would be required to cause the expansion to stop

A closed universe is necessarily a closed manifold. An open universe can be either a closed or open manifold. For example, in the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model the universe is considered to be without boundaries, in which case compact universe could describe a universe that is a closed manifold Closed to human reordering, because it is locked up in a clocklike fashion (de-emphasized) 3. Human beings, though personal, are a part of the clockwork of the universe. 4. The cosmos, this world, is understood to be in its normal state; it is not fallen or abnormal. We can know the universe, and we can determine what God is like by studying it. 5 By definition, the universe encompasses all of space and time as we know it, so it is beyond the realm of the Big Bang model to postulate what the universe is expanding into. In either the open or closed universe, the only edge to space-time occurs at the Big Bang (and perhaps its counterpart the Big Crunch), so it is not logically necessary. 7. What is the meaning of a closed universe? a) The universe will expand forever. b) The universe will someday stop expanding and start to collapse. c) The universe will stop expanding in an infinite amount of time. d) The universe is in a steady-state. 8. The geometry of a closed universe, in two dimensions, resembles one of the following

Unit 9: The Big Bang Flashcards Quizle

What worldview(s) says the universe is a closed system with no supernatural beings? Naturalism and Secular Humanism: What worldview says human problems are caused by natural or physical causes? Naturalism: What worldview says there is no overall story or meaning to daily events or to human history. Naturalis 1.0. Term. On the basis of our current best estimate of the present mass density of the universe, astronomers think that. Definition. the universe is infinite in extent and will expand forever. Term. The horizon problem in the standard BIG BANG model is solved by having the universe. Definition Hubble's law, also known as the Hubble-Lemaître law, is the observation in physical cosmology that galaxies are moving away from the Earth at speeds proportional to their distance. In other words, the farther they are the faster they are moving away from Earth. The velocity of the galaxies has been determined by their redshift, a shift of the light they emit toward the red end of the spectrum A familiar demonstration of the second law is the flow of heat from hot things to cold, and never vice-versa. When a hot stone is dropped into a bucket of cool water, the stone cools and the water warms until each is the same temperature as the other. During this process, the entropy of the system increases closed universe, has been determined recently by measuring A) the extent of the bending of light from distant galaxies, the so-called lensing. B) the average density of matter compared to the average density of radiation energy

In cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ), alternatively called Einstein's cosmological constant, is the energy density of space, or vacuum energy, that arises in Albert Einstein's field equations of general relativity.It is closely associated to the concept of dark energy.. Einstein originally introduced the concept in 1917 to. Entropy definition is - a measure of the unavailable energy in a closed thermodynamic system that is also usually considered to be a measure of the system's disorder, that is a property of the system's state, and that varies directly with any reversible change in heat in the system and inversely with the temperature of the system; broadly : the degree of disorder or uncertainty in a system The galaxies we see in all direction are moving away from the earth, as evidenced by their red shifts. Hubble's law describes this expansion. The fact that we see all other galaxies moving away from us does not imply that we are the centre of at the universe. All galaxies will see all other stars moving away from them in an expanding universe

For example, the image at right gives an idea of what a tiny closed universe might look like. (In a real closed universe, you cannot see the back of your head, the way you can here.) If you shrink such a space down, then everything in it gets closer together, and the volume of the closed universe gets closer and closer to zero radiation from the universe for the first time. 16. Measurement of structure in the cosmic microwave background radiation has recently indicated that we live in a flat universe between a closed and an open universe and yet the measured density of detected matter and radiation is only 20−40% of the critical density required for a flat universe

Abortion. Euthanasia. Pornography. Same-sex marriage. Transgender rights. Embryonic research. Genetic enhancement. Christians surveying the cultural landscape in the West have a clear sense that things are headed in a destructive direction. While most believers can easily identify the symptoms of decline, few feel competent to diagnose and address the root causes The four Arab armies then deployed on Israel's borders, backed up by the armies of Iraq, Algeria, Kuwait, and Sudan. President Nasser of Egypt then closed the Straits of Tehran, thus blocking all shipping to Israel's southern port of Eilat. This was an internationally recognized act of war One the one hand - it's (i.e. a system) a `black box' (in an environment), with input/s and output/s, and inside the `black box' is an algorithm. (eg IF [THIS], THEN.

Entropy increases in a closed system, such as the universe. But in parts of the universe, for instance, in the Solar system, it is not a locally closed system. Energy flows from the Sun to the planets, replenishing Earth's stores of energy. The Sun will continue to supply us with energy for about another five billion years In a closed Universe, locally parallel light rays converge at some extremely distant point. This is referred to as spherical geometry. If the density of matter in the Universe is low (an open Universe), self-gravity is insufficient to stop the expansion, and the Universe continues to expand forever (albeit at an ever decreasing rate) Illustration by Flavio Robles. Once upon a time, when astronomers spoke of the universe as closed, open, or flat, they meant that the density of the universe was either so great that it would eventually recollapse because of gravitational attraction; or that its density was so low that gravity would be insufficient to keep it from expanding forever; or that its density was so delicately. The simplest scenario of an expanding universe would be one in which R increases with time at a constant rate. But you already know that life is not so simple. The universe contains a great deal of mass and its gravity decelerates the expansion—by a large amount if the universe contains a lot of matter, or by a negligible amount if the universe is nearly empty A universe of ineffable gaudiness spun itself out in his brain while the clock ticked on the wash-stand and the moon soaked with wet light his tangled clothes upon the floor. Each night he added to the pattern of his fancies until drowsiness closed down upon some vivid scene with an oblivious embrace

Level I: An extension of our universe. A prediction of cosmic inflation is the existence of an infinite ergodic universe, which, being infinite, must contain Hubble volumes realizing all initial conditions. Accordingly, an infinite universe will contain an infinite number of Hubble volumes, all having the same physical laws and physical constants If a closed-end fund gets popular, then its shares often trade at a premium, meaning that the share price in the market is higher than the value per share of the fund's investments

chapter 26 astronomy Flashcards Quizle

  1. Newton invented the universe. It displaced the traditional Aristotelian cosmos. This widely held view was due largely to the work of the historian Alexandre Koyré. In this view, the 'Newtonian Synthesis' marked the shift from a closed, finite, hierarchical, qualitative cosmos to an infinite, homogeneous, quantitative universe
  2. ­A­lmost all astronomers accept that the universe is expanding. What happens next is the real mystery. Luckily, there are only three real possibilities: The universe can be open, flat or closed. Open Universe. In this scenario, the universe will expand forever, and as it does, the matter it contains will spread thinner and thinner
  3. The answer is yes—from an evolutionary gene's eye view. But from almost every other perspective—individual, group, moral, environmental, or concern for life as a whole—the answer to the.

No, it is not so. Let's go by the definition of adiabatic process, In Thermodynamics Adibatic process is a process in which there is no heat transfer take place into or out of the system i.e ΔQ=0 is the only condition for a adiabatic process to ta.. According to the second law of thermodynamics, for systems reacting at standard conditions for temperature and pressure (or any other fixed temperature and pressure), there is a general natural tendency to achieve a minimum of the Gibbs free energy.. A quantitative measure of the favorability of a given reaction at constant temperature and pressure is the change ΔG (sometimes written delta G. All stars come from humble beginnings: namely, a gigantic, rotating clump of gas and dust. Gravity drives the cloud to condense as it spins, swirling into an ever more tightly packed sphere of.

As Loschmidt pointed it out, the second law of thermodynamics, as proved by Boltzmann, is not a fundamental law. It's an emerging fact about our universe. Yet, all the fundamental laws of our universe are reversible. This means that there is a perfect symmetry between going forwards and backwards in time Definition 2: CHARGE is an extent to which the atom has more electrons than protons. The SI unit of charge is coulomb (C). The smallest unit of charge is the charge of the electron though I doubt that because quarks are found to exist within proton and electrons with. Keeping this in consideration, what is meant by conservation of charge quizlet The universe began to exist. 3. The universe has a cause/causer. My opinion: This argument is a good one. In the modern version, it is useful, but it is too abstract to be of much general use. II. Teleological Argument. The argument from design. Like David said, The heavens declare the glory of God Psalm 19:1-4

The main purpose the particle accelerator serves is to provide a proper understanding of our universe. There is a belief that over 95% of the universe is unknown to humankind. But with the help of the particle accelerator, with the current largest accelerator being the large hadron collider, researchers may be able to broaden our understanding The second law can be expressed in several ways, the simplest being that heat will naturally flow from a hotter to a colder body. At its heart is a property of thermodynamic systems called entropy.

Stars & Galaxies Chapter 26 Flashcards Quizle

Today the Universe appears to be dominated by dark energy About 3/4 of the total mass-energy of the universe is dark energy The remaining quarter is virtually all matter (dark matter and normal matter) The radiation in the universe is a small fraction Mostly the cosmic microwave background The radiation from stars and galaxies is much weake Hubble Parameter The proportionality between recession velocity and distance in the Hubble Law is called the Hubble constant, or more appropriately the Hubble parameter we have a history of revising it. In recent years the value of the Hubble parameter has been considerably refined, and the current value given by the WMAP mission is 71 km/s per megaparsec The universe itself is a closed system, so the total amount of energy in existence has always been the same. The forms that energy takes, however, are constantly changing

This image of the universe shows the radiation left over from the Big Bang, which occurred 13.7 billion years ago. Maps like these helped scientists determine the amount of dark energy and dark matter in the universe. NASA/WMAP Science Team. Over time, more evidence for dark matter would emerge The Definition of Disorder. It's harder than you'd think to find a system that doesn't let energy out or in — our universe is as good an example of one as we have — but entropy describes how disorder happens in a system as large as the universe or as small as a thermos full of coffee King (Lord) Pakal - Breathing In The Universe. K'inich Janaab' Pakal. K'inich Janaab' Pakal (March 23, 603 - August 28, 683) was ruler of the Maya polity of Palenque in the Late Classic period of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican chronology. During his 68 year reign, Pakal was responsible for the construction or extension of some of Palenque's most notable surviving inscriptions and monumental. Worldview is just a term meaning how you interpret reality, or what you believe to be true. As far as I can tell, we each have one - and though it has been vastly influenced by the thoughts of those we read, watch or associate with, we each actually have a unique perspective on what is going on. Worldviews can and do change The second meaning, Overcoming Fear, is closely related to the first (since one who is receiving protection would be less fearful). The main features of this pose, aside from the raised right hand, is that The Buddha can be depicted either sitting or standing, and the left hand may either be extended outward or palm up in the lap

Astronomy Chapter 26 Quiz Q&As Flashcards Quizle

Furthermore, the end-time subject matter of the book of Revelation, and the prohibition of adding to the words of the book in Revelation 22:18, argue strongly that the canon was closed at the time of its writing (c. A.D. 95). There is an important theological point that should not be missed Entropy Definition. Entropy is the measure of the disorder of a system. It is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system, which means its value changes depending on the amount of matter that is present. In equations, entropy is usually denoted by the letter S and has units of joules per kelvin (J⋅K −1) or kg⋅m 2 ⋅s −2 ⋅K −1 Specifically, Vilenkin closed the door on three models attempting to avert the implication of his theorem: eternal inflation, a cyclic universe, and an 'emergent' universe which exists for eternity as a static seed before expanding. Vilenkin concluded, All the evidence we have says that the universe had a beginning

My understanding of the Big Bang is that it was a creation event in every sense of the word. Space and time did not exist before the Big Bang happened and have no meaning outside of our universe 1. The Word 'Metaphysics' and the Concept of Metaphysics. The word 'metaphysics' is notoriously hard to define. Twentieth-century coinages like 'meta-language' and 'metaphilosophy' encourage the impression that metaphysics is a study that somehow goes beyond physics, a study devoted to matters that transcend the mundane concerns of Newton and Einstein and Heisenberg

The universe, or the totality universe plus God, could only possess a meaning in relation to something outside. And by definition there is nothing outside a totality. It is inconceivable that they could have a meaning. If this is the case, then there is also no conceivable shame or loss if life and the universe have no purpose or meaning To be a relativist means that a belief, idea, proposition, claim, etc. is never true or false, good or bad, or right or wrong, absolutely. According to the relativist, there is no absolute or objective truth; truth is relative and subjective. For example, a relativist can't consistently claim that 2 + 2 = 4 because the answer 4 is neither. This study guide is a tool designed to prepare students for the Topic 1 Quiz. Instructors will grade the study guide for comple±on, not for accuracy. Download the study guide and type in your answers below the ques±ons In other words, clusters are closed systems. By studying the chemical composition of clusters, it is possible to get a history of nucleosynthesis in the Universe. the force of gravity that holds clusters together comes mostly from dark matter, making clusters an excellent way to study dark matter in the Universe

Ch. 15, 16, 17 Test Flashcards Quizle

  1. Arizona's state poet laureate Alberto Ríos grew up on the Arizona-Mexico border. In his poem The Border: A Double Sonnet, Rios describes what the border signifies to people living there
  2. Students also viewed T5Gospel Essentials Essay CWV 101 RS T7Ethical Dilemma Essay Upload Gospel Essentials - Grade: B+ Week 4 Review: Quiz With Included Solutions, 2015 Cwv-101 Topic 4 Quiz Correct Answers, Grade Received 100 CWV-101-301-RS-T3Conseq Of The Fall Contemporary Response-Online
  3. Existentialism. First published Mon Aug 23, 2004; substantive revision Tue Jun 9, 2020. Like rationalism and empiricism, existentialism is a term that belongs to intellectual history. Its definition is thus to some extent one of historical convenience. The term was explicitly adopted as a self-description by Jean-Paul Sartre.
  4. Entropy is a measure of the energy dispersal in the system. We see evidence that the universe tends toward highest entropy many places in our lives. A campfire is an example of entropy. The solid wood burns and becomes ash, smoke and gases, all of which spread energy outwards more easily than the solid fuel. Ice melting, salt or sugar dissolving, making popcorn and boiling water for tea are.
  5. True False A spontaneous reaction requires that the entropy of the universe increase. True False A closed system disallows the transfer of matter to the surroundings
  6. The current scientific consensus is that all matter in the Universe was created roughly 13.8 billion years ago during an event known as the Big Bang. Comments are closed

Earth is a Closed System. Our planet and its atmosphere is suspended in space by gravitational forces. Above our physical planet is the atmosphere ― a layer of gases. These gases are nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide and some water vapor ― about 1 percent near the surface. There is no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer. Aristotle and Dante Discover the Secrets of the Universe follows two teenage boys, Aristotle Ari and his best friend Dante, as they grow up over the course of two years in late-1980s El Paso, Texas.When the boys first meet at the local pool, they're 15 and in many ways, have no idea who they are—Ari even suggests that until a person turns 18, their parents and teachers are the ones. The quantity of matter/energy remains the same. It can change from solid to liquid to gas to plasma and back again, but the total amount of matter/energy in the universe remains constant. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is commonly known as the Law of Increased Entropy. While quantity remains the same (First Law), the quality of matter/energy.

The universe is better understood by an electrical engineer than a mathemetician who has to make up theories like black holes, the big bang, nuetron stars, dark matter, etc. Things that have never. In the geocentric worldview: A. sun is set at the center of the universe with planets and stars going around from west to east. B. sun is set at the center of the universe with planets and stars. Smallest part of an element that can still retain the properties of that element. These make up the atom, and they are protons, neutrons, and electrons. This subatomic particle is in the nucleus of the atom, and has a positive charge. The center of an atom, made of protons and neutrons

Stars & Galaxies #5 Flashcards Quizle

Lecture 8 Greek Thought: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle: The political and social upheaval caused by the Persian Wars as well as continued strife between Athens and Sparta (see Lecture 7) had at least one unintended consequence .In the 5 th century, a flood of new ideas poured into Athens. In general, these new ideas came as a result of an influx of Ionian thinkers into the Attic peninsula 13 What is the full meaning of Agricultural Science? 14 Who is the father of agricultural? 15 Who is father of science? 16 Who is father of agriculture in India? 17 What was the first agriculture? 18 Who was the first farmer in the Bible? 19 Who invented agriculture? 20 What was the first crop grown by humans? 21 Where was farming invented Using the Universe of Obligation Tool to Teach Mockingbird. One way to help students understand the moral universe of a community such as Maycomb in To Kill a Mockingbird is by introducing the concept of universe of obligation, a term coined by scholar Helen Fein. A universe of obligation is the circle of individuals and groups toward whom. Cosmology and Theology. As long as humans have been trying to make sense of the universe, they have been proposing cosmological theories. Furthermore, the notion of a deity often plays a central role in these cosmological theories. According to most monotheistic religions, God is the sole creator and sustainer of the universe

What is the difference between an open universe and a

Closed System in Chemistry: Definition & Example After completing this lesson, you'll understand why the earth is a closed system inside the universe, but an open system inside the earth's. Difference Between Open and Closed Systems Definition. Open System: An open system is a thermodynamic system where energy and matter can be exchanged with its surrounding. Closed System: A closed system is a thermodynamic system where energy can be exchanged with its surrounding but not matter. Exchange of Matter. Open System: Open systems can exchange matter with the surrounding The earth is a closed system because only energy is naturally transferred outside the atmosphere. Matter needs to break physical laws in order to leave the earth's atmosphere, and outside matter. A comprehensive database of more than 25 universe quizzes online, test your knowledge with universe quiz questions. Our online universe trivia quizzes can be adapted to suit your requirements for taking some of the top universe quizzes

What is the shape of the universe? - NAS

  1. An open universe would be saddle-shaped, with a beam of light bending across the curvature. And a closed universe would be a sphere, with a beam of light eventually looping back around it to meet.
  2. A Corner of The Universe (2002), by young adult author, Ann M. Martin, follows an 11-year-old girl as she meets her funny, compassionate, yet intellectually disabled uncle for the first time.It was a Newberry Honor Book. Themes in A Corner of the Universe include the loss of innocence, the necessity of tolerance, and the revitalizing power of love..
  3. In closed systems, however, it is possible to maintain a level of organization as long as power is input. It should be noted that the way to obtain energy is a process that also generates entropy
  4. Objective reality is that which exists outside of perception. These are events that are happening, like the sun burning (Oversimplification). Objects inside objective reality are as they are. Subjective reality is that which perceives, the conscio..

Shape of the universe - Wikipedi

  1. istic relationship. René Descartes' view of a subject as a deter
  2. The last line of The Great Gatsby is a metaphor of trying to row against the flow of current. We can take this metaphor to be: depressing and fatalistic, that the past is an anchor and that life only an illusion of forward progress. uplifting, that we battle against fate with our will and our strength
  3. In the literal sense no but in science many real life processes are approximated to give an overall meaning to analyze it.The same applies here processes in closed and open systems can be approximated to be adiabatic. Now the question is when
  4. a unit of pressure equal to one newton per square meter. Bar=A unit of pressure, equal to the sea-level pressure of Earth's atmosphere; 1 bar = 0.987 atmosphere = 101,300 pascals = 14.5 lbs/square inch = 100,000 Newtons per square meter. passive. lacking in energy or will
  5. It now seems certain that the universe did have a beginning. 2. The 'see page 6' article referred to is by Lisa Grossman and soberly titled/subtitled: Death of the eternal cosmos—From the cosmic egg to the infinite multiverse, every model of the universe has a beginning. 3
  6. The geocentric model of the universe, in which the Sun, planets and stars revolved around the Earth, was the accepted view of the cosmos for millennia
  7. cos·mol·o·gy (kŏz-mŏl′ə-jē) n. pl. cos·mol·o·gies 1. The study of the physical universe considered as a totality of phenomena in time and space. 2. a. The astrophysical study of the history, structure, and constituent dynamics of the universe. b. A specific theory or model of this structure and these dynamics. 3. A philosophical, religious.

Universe Next Door: Worldview Catalog - Detailed Content

Eternalism is a philosophical approach to the ontological nature of time, which takes the view that all existence in time is equally real, as opposed to presentism or the growing block universe theory of time, in which at least the future is not the same as any other time. Some forms of eternalism give time a similar ontology to that of space, as a dimension, with different times being as real. The largest void that we currently know of is known as the Giant Void (original, I know), and it's located about 1.5 billion light-year away. It has a diameter of 1 billion to 1.3 billion light. A Corner of the Universe It is the early 1960's and Hattie Owen's world revolves around the boarding house her parents run in the small town of Millerton, where her grandparents are the wealthiest residents in town. The summer of Hattie's 12th birthday starts like any other. Her best friend Betsy leaves for vacation in Maine, and once. What does this mean? To solve a problem, or so goes the argument, you must have a bird's eye view of all the facts. But since we are all conscious, we can never have such a view Example 29.2. 1: critical density of the universe. As we discussed, the critical density is that combination of matter and energy that brings the universe coasting to a stop at time infinity. Einstein's equations lead to the following expression for the critical density ( ρ crit) : ρ crit = 3 H 2 8 π G

WMAP Big Bang Concepts - NAS

  1. Three possible shapes of the Universe: closed, open and flat from top to bottom. Image credits: NASA. So a flat Universe would mean that drawn parallel lines remain parallel - and herein lies.
  2. ation
  3. The universe is considered the only real isolated system, because it acts like a big, humongous stalled car that contains everything inside of it. Try as you might, you can't escape from the universe
  4. In any closed system, in other words, each time a system goes through a thermodynamic process, the system can never completely return to precisely the same state it was in before. This is one definition used for the arrow of time since entropy of the universe will always increase over time according to the second law of thermodynamics
  5. The general systems theory (GST) relies on a system's structure, instead of its function.It states that complex systems have common basic organizing principles, regardless of the field we are talking about.Consequently, these principles have the capacity of being modeled mathematically. This concept was first introduced around 1955, by the UK economist Kenneth Boulding and the Austrian.
  6. ΔSuniv = nRTlnV2 V1 T > 0. If we put the two equations for ΔSuniv together for both types of processes, we are left with the second law of thermodynamics, ΔSuniv = ΔSsys + ΔSsurr ≥ 0. where ΔSuniv equals zero for a truly reversible process and is greater than zero for an irreversible process
Second Law of Thermodynamics - Nature vs Mankind #FrizeMedia

Isn't there a biochemist in the house? This question is much too hard for physicists! The second law of thermodynamics applies both to open and to closed systems. The entropy is always increased in an irreversible process, whether a system is clo.. Every star has a 'habitable zone', also called the 'Goldilocks zone', where it is not too hot and not too cold. A planet in the habitable zone gets the right amount of energy from the star to support liquid water. Any closer in to the star and water would boil, and any further out and it would freeze. However, this doesn't guarantee.

Globalization is the free movement of goods, services and people across the world in a seamless and integrated manner. Globalization can be thought of to be the result of the opening up of the global economy and the concomitant increase in trade between nations. In other words, when countries that were hitherto closed to trade and foreign. July 15, 2017 — Disney confirms that the Universe of Energy pavilion will close and be replaced by a Guardians of the Galaxy themed attraction. August 13, 2017 — The Universe of Energy pavilion has its last day of operation. During the final show, the attraction breaks down forcing guests to evacuate mid-show Define natural philosophy. natural philosophy synonyms, natural philosophy pronunciation, natural philosophy translation, English dictionary definition of natural philosophy. n. The study of nature and the physical universe, especially before the advent of modern science. natural philosopher n No. No known phenomena violates the second law of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics postulates that the entropy of a closed system will always increase with time (and never be a negative value). The only known closed system that exists is the entire universe and thus the law applies to the universe as a whole. The notion centres around the idea that when energy is transferred.

Solar Cycle #24: On Track to be the Weakest in 100 Years. Our nearest star has exhibited some schizophrenic behavior thus far for 2013. By all rights, we should be in the throes of a solar maximum. The Universe Next Door is an enlightening read on alternative systems and world views that helps increase awareness, empathy and the ability to think globally. I was the professor's assistant for two more World Religion classes and came to see this book as a teaching tool

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Copernican theory synonyms, Copernican theory pronunciation, Copernican theory translation, English dictionary definition of Copernican theory. n the theory published in 1543 by Copernicus which stated that the earth and the planets rotated around the sun and which opposed the Ptolemaic system.. Aristotle's Metaphysics. First published Sun Oct 8, 2000; substantive revision Sat Nov 21, 2020. The first major work in the history of philosophy to bear the title Metaphysics was the treatise by Aristotle that we have come to know by that name. But Aristotle himself did not use that title or even describe his field of study as. A universe as flat as we see it today would require an extreme fine-tuning of conditions in the past, which would be an unbelievable coincidence. The Horizon Problem: Distant regions of space in opposite directions of the sky are so far apart that, assuming standard Big Bang expansion, they could never have been in causal contact with each other